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U.S. Government Shutdowns History

08 Apr

http://www.historyguy.com/government_shutdown_history.htm

Below is a chart showing the last 18 shutdowns of the United States Federal Government since 1976

Year Date Government Shutdown Began Full day(s) of Government Shutdown Date Government Shutdown Ended
    of gaps  
1976 Thursday 09-30-76 10 Monday 10-11-76
1977 Friday 09-30-77 12 Thursday 10-13-17
1977 Monday 10-31-77 8 Wednesday 11-09-77
1977 Wednesday 11-30-77 8 Friday 12-09-77
1978 Saturday 09-30-78 17 Wednesday 10-18-78
1979 Sunday 09-30-79 11 Friday 10-12-79
1981 Friday 11-20-81 2 Monday 11-23-81
1982 Thursday 9-30-82 1 Saturday 10-2-82
1982 Friday 12-17-82 3 Tuesday 12-21-82
1983 Thursday 11-10-83 3 Monday 11-14-83
1984 Sunday 9-30-84 2 Wednesday 10-3-84
1984 Wednesday 10-3-84 1 Friday 10-5-84
1986 Thursday 10-16-86 1 Saturday 10-18-86
1987 Friday 12-18-87 1 Sunday 12-20-87
1990 Friday 10-5-90 3 Tuesday 10-9-90
1995 Monday 11-13-95 5 Sunday 11-19-95
1995-1996 Friday 12-15-95 21 Saturday 1-6-96

As of Friday, April 8, 2011, President Obama and the Republican leadeship in the House of Representatives had failed to reach a budget agreement that would prevent the first Federal Government Shutdown of the 21st Century. Stay tuned for more details.

Source: The Congressional Research Service Report 98-844: Shutdown of the Federal Government:

Causes, Effects, and Process

 

Japan Earthquake History

13 Mar

History of Japan Earthquakes

http://www.historyguy.com/japan_earthquake_history.htm

 

 Japanese Flag

 

Japan is a densely-populated island nation in the northwest Pacific and is a part of the “Ring of Fire” chain of earthquake-prone Pacific Rim. As a result, the Japanese people have endured massive earthquakes throughout their history. Japan is so quake-prone, that minor earthquakes are an almost monthly aspect of life for the Japanese. However, several times in the past hundred years or so, Japan suffers through powerful earthquakes that cause massive amounts of destruction and result in thousands of deaths.

On March, 2011, a huge earthquake measuring around 8.9 to 9.0 on the Richter scale hit off the coast of the Japanese city of Sendai. In addition to destruction on the ground, the quake also triggered a powerful tsunami that hit Japan hard. As of March 13, 2011, full casualty figures are not complete, but the death toll is in the thousands, with millions of people without power, and at least two nuclear plants in the throes of possible meltdown.

Below is a list of the most destructive Japanese earthquakes since the late 1800s.

Japanese Earthquakes since 1891

Sendai, Japan (March 11, 2011)–Magnitude 8.9/9.0 –Fatalities in the thousands, full casualty numbers are not yet available

Kobe, Japan (Jan. 16, 1995)- Magnitude 6.9 –Fatalities 5,502

Niigata, Japan (June 6, 1964)- Magnitude 7.5 –Fatalities 26

Fukui, Japan (June 28, 1948) – Magnitude 7.3 –Fatalities 3,769

Nankaido, Japan (Dec. 20, 1946)- Magnitude 8.1 –Fatalities 1,330

Mikawa, Japan (January 12, 1945)- Magnitude 7.1 –Fatalities 1,961

Tonankai, Japan (December 7, 1944) – Magnitude 8.1 –Fatalities 1,223

Tottori, Japan (Sept. 10, 1943)-Magnitude 7.4 –Fatalities 1,190

Sanriku, Japan (March 2, 1933)- Magnitude 8.4 –Fatalities 2,990

Tango, Japan (March 7, 1927)- Magnitude 7.6 –Fatalities 3,020

Kanto, Japan (Sept. 1, 1923) – Magnitude 7.9 –Fatalities 143,000

Sanriku, Japan (June 15, 1896)- Magnitude 8.5 –Fatalities 27,000

Mino-Owari, Japan (Oct. 27, 1891)-Magnitude 8.0 –Fatalities 7,273

 

Second Seminole Indian War

27 Feb

New page on the Second Seminole War is now online. http://www.historyguy.com/indian_wars/second_seminole_war.htm

The Second Seminole War Began: December 23, 1835

TheSecond Seminole War Ended: August 14, 1842

The Second Seminole War Was Fought Between: United States vs. Seminole Indians of Florida

The Second Seminole War Resulted In: Seminole Indians were allowed to remain in South Florida, though some were encouraged to move West. In effect, the Army could not defeat the Seminoles, and they were allowed to remain in place.

Major Battles and Campaigns of the Second Seminole War:

“Dade Massacre” (December 28, 1835)Gaines’ Expedition (1836)

Scott’s Expedition (1836)

Battle of Hatchee-Lustee (1837)

Battle of Lake Okeechobee (December 25, 1837)

Battle of Loxahatchee (January 24, 1838)

“Harney Massacre” (July 23, 1839)

Second Seminole War Casualties:

Seminole Casualties: Unnknown (Seminoles usually carried away their dead and wounded)

U.S. Military Casualties: 1,600 (approximately)  

 

Sources:1. Kohn, George C. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts On File Publications. 1999.

2. Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupey. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present New York, New York: Harper & Row. 1993

Free Military History Webinar Opportunity:
Why Did Germany Lose World War Two? Join The FREE Webinar on This Topic Now

 

Wars of Libya

24 Feb

http://www.historyguy.com/wars_of_libya.htm

Wars of Libya (1800-Present)

Libyan Flag

Libyan Flag under Gadaffi

 First Barbary War (1986)–Also known in the West as the Tripolitanian War, this was a war between Tripoli and the United States. From this conflict, the United States Marine Corps Hymn uses the phrase “From the Shores of Tripoli…”

World War Two (1940-1943 in Libya)–Although Libya was occupied by Fascist Italy during World War Two, Libya was a battleground betweent the Italians and Germans on one side, and the British, Americans, and other Allies on the other side.

Khaddafi Coup d’etat (1969)–The coup led by Colonel Muammar Khaddafi ended the monarchy, and began 42 years of rule by Khaddafi

Military Coup Attempt (1975)

Libyan-Egyptian War (1977)–A brief four-day border war between Libya and Egypt.

Libyan invasion of Chad (occupation of Aouzou Strip) 1979

Tobruk Army Revolt (1980)

Libyan invasion of Chad (1981)

U.S. Air raid against Tripoli and Benghazi (1986)

Libyan Revolution of 2011 (2011)

Libyan Revolution Timeline 

 

 

Sources:1. Kohn, George C. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts On File Publications. 1999.

2. Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupey. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present New York, New York: Harper & Row. 1993.

 

This Day In History: February 2-Groundhog Day

02 Feb

This Day In History:

February 2

http://www.historyguy.com/this_day_in_history_february_2.htm

1653 – The Dutch colony of New Amsterdam (later renamed The City of New York) is incorporated. 

1659 – Jan van Riebeeck, the founder of Cape Town, produced the first bottle of South African wine.

1876 – The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed.

1887 – In Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania the first Groundhog Day is observed.

1901 – The funeral of Queen Victoria of Britain.

1971– One week after overthrowing President Obote in a coup, Idi Amin declared himself President of Uganda, Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, Army Chief of Staff and Chief of Air Staff.

1972 – The British embassy in Dublin is destroyed in protest of the Bloody Sunday violence in Northern Ireland.

1974 – The F-16 Fighting Falcon takes flight for the first time.

1982 – The Syrian army bombarded the town of Hama in order to quell a revolt by the Muslim Brotherhood, killing about 7,000–25,000 people.

1989Soviet war in Afghanistan: The last Soviet armoured column leaves Kabul. The Soviets would finish their retreat out of Afghanistan on Feb. 15.

2004 – Swiss tennis player Roger Federer became the No. 1 ranked men’s singles player, a position he held for a record 237 weeks.

February 2 Birthdays: 

1905 – Ayn Rand, Russian-born American author and philosopher (d. 1982)

1915 – Abba Eban, Israeli diplomat (d. 2002)

1937 – Tom Smothers, American musician and comedian (The Smothers Brothers)

1942 – Graham Nash, British-born American musician (Crosby, Stills, and Nash)

1947 – Farrah Fawcett, American actress (d. 2009)

1949 – Brent Spiner, American actor (Star Trek: The Next Generation)

1949 – Ross Valory, American musician (Journey)

1953 – Duane Chapman, American bounty hunter and television personality (Dog the Bounty Hunter)

1954 – Christie Brinkley, American model

1975 – Donald Driver, American football player (Green Bay Packers)

1983 – Ronny Cedeño, Venezuelan baseball player (Pittsburgh Pirates)

 

Anglo-Egyptian Wars: The Wars Between Britain and Egypt

01 Feb

NEW Political Unrest in Egypt 2011 Timeline NEW

 Anglo-Egyptian Wars: Wars Between Britain and Egypt

http://www.historyguy.com/anglo-egyptian_wars.htm

 

 Anglo-Egyptian War (1807)– Seeking to replace Muhammed Ali with a puppet ruler favorable to British interests, Britain invaded with nearly 5,000 troops on March 17, 1807. British forces led by General A. Mackenzie Fraser seized the city of Alexandria. British forces suffered several military defeats before retreating and evacuating Egypt on September 14, 1807.

Greek War of Independence (1821-1832)– Egypt’s part in the war came about when the Ottoman Turks requested Egyptian aid in fighting the rebellious Greeks. The Pasha of Egypt, Muhammad Ali, sent his son Ibrahim to Greece with a powerful Egyptian army. The British, French, and Russians intervened to save the Greeks, defeating a combined Turko-Egyptian fleet at the Battle of Navarino in 1827. French troops expelled the Egyptian land forces. The Egyptian portion of the war lasted from 1825-1832. This war led directly to the First Turko-Egyptian War. (see below) See also: Greco-Turkish Wars

Urabi Revolt/British Conquest of Egypt (1881-1882)– Muslim rebels opposed to Turkish, Western, and Christian influence in Egypt (Britain and France had gained a large degree of control due to the Suez Canal project), rebelled on February 1, 1881 in Alexandria. On July 11, 1882, in response to a massacre of Christians in Alexandria, the British fleet bombarded Alexandria, followed up by the landing of 25,000 troops at Ismailia. In the Battle of Tel al-Kebir, the British defeated Urabi’s army. From this point on, Britain retained an army in the countryand effectively controlled Egypt, which remained technically an Ottoman (yet recognized as independent in all but name), vassal.

Anglo-Egyptian War of 1951-1952 (1951-1952)–Egyptian guerrillas, aided by the governement of Egypt, carried out a campaign against British forces stationed at the Suez Canal and against other British and Western symbols and targets. On January 25, 1952, British troops retaliated against Egypt by attacking an Egyptian police station, killing 50 and wounding 100. The conflict ended with a change in the Egyptian government and the eventual withdrawal of British troops. This conflict led to Britain’s involvment in the 1956 Anglo-French-Israeli invasion of Egypt in 1956. (see below)

Suez/Sinai War (1956)– Since the end of the First War with Israel, Egypt encouraged Palestinian raids against the Israelis from Gaza and Sinai. Israel made plans with Britain and France to attack Egypt. On October 29, 1956, Israeli troops invaded Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula and quickly overcame opposition as they raced for Suez. The next day, Britain and France, following suit, in response to Egypt’s nationalization of the Suez Canal, and on October 31, Egypt was attacked and invaded by the military forces of Britain and France. President Eisenhower of the United States pressured Britain, France and Israel into agreeing to a cease-fire and eventual withdrawal from Egypt. Militarily, Egypt was defeated by teh invading allies, but Nasser claimed a political and moral victory as British, French, and Israeli forces were forced to leave Egypt by the Great Powers.

 

 

Sources:1. Kohn, George C. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts On File Publications. 1999.

2. Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupey. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present New York, New York: Harper & Row. 1993.

 

Egyptian-Israeli Wars 1948-1979

01 Feb

Wars Between Egypt and Israel

Egyptian FlagIsrael Flag

 http://www.historyguy.com/egypt-israel_wars.htm

Arab-Israeli War of 1948 (1948-1949)–The First Arab-Israeli War, in which Egypt acquired the Gaza Strip. Egypt joined with several other Arab nations in an invasion of Israel in May, 1948 in support of Palestinian Arabs fighting against the newborn Israeli state. See Arab-Israeli Wars

Egyptian Seizure of the Israeli ship Bat Galim (Summer, 1954)—Egypt seized the Israeli ship Bat Galim as it attempted to enter the Suez Canal.  According to various international agreements, the Suez Canal is supposed to be accessible to ships of all nations.  This provoked worsening tensions between Israel and Egypt.

Israeli Raid on Gaza (Feb. 28, 1955)—Israeli forces conducted a raid, a response to repeated guerrilla attacks and the seizure of an Israeli ship by Egypt, which resulted in the deaths of 51 Egyptian soldiers and 8 Israeli troops.  This raid was the largest of its kind against Arab forces since the end of the First Arab-Israeli War in 1949.–See Arab-Israeli Border Wars

Suez/Sinai War (1956)– Since the end of the First War with Israel, Egypt encouraged Palestinian raids against the Israelis from Gaza and Sinai. Israel made plans with Britain and France to attack Egypt. On October 29, 1956, Israeli troops invaded Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula and quickly overcame opposition as they raced for Suez. The next day, Britain and France, following suit, in response to Egypt’s nationalization of the Suez Canal, and on October 31, Egypt was attacked and invaded by the military forces of Britain and France. President Eisenhower of the United States pressured Britain, France and Israel into agreeing to a cease-fire and eventual withdrawal from Egypt. Militarily, Egypt was defeated by teh invading allies, but Nasser claimed a political and moral victory as British, French, and Israeli forces were forced to leave Egypt by the Great Powers.

Arab-Israeli War of 1967 (1967)– As the underlying tensions between the Arab nations and Israel remained unchanged since the First Arab-Israeli War of 1948-1949, the outbreak of a third major war was expected. The introduction of the American-Soviet competition and arms sales in the region only accelerated the likelihood of a Middle Eastern war evolving into a Cold War confrontation. the immediate cause of war in 1967 came out of Egypt’s decision to expel United Nations (UN) troops from the Sinai peninsula and blockade Israel’s port of Eilat. The UN forces were intended to form a buffer between the border separating Israel and Egypt, and their expulsion led the Israeli government to fear an imminent attack by Egypt. Fearing an attack by the Arab states, Israel launched a pre-emptive attack on Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. In this lighting war, Israel siezed the Gaza Strip and Sinai from Egypt, the West Bank and Jerusalem from Jordan, and the Golan Heights from Syria. See Arab-Israeli Wars

The War of Attrition (1968-1970)–After the shockingly quick defeat of the Arab nations by Israel in the 1967 Six-Day War, Egypt (supported by the Soviet Union), engaged in a low-level war of attrition with Israel along the Suez Canal and in the Sinai region. See Arab-Israeli Wars

Arab-Israeli War of 1973 (1973)–Also known as the Yom Kippur War by Israel, as the Ramadan War by the Arab nations, or simply, as the October War. In October, 1973, Egypt and Syria launched a surprise attack on Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai, and Syrian Golan. The Arab nations failed to defeat Israel, but this war set the stage for peace negotiations between Egypt and Israel. See Arab-Israeli Wars

Egypt and Israel signed a peace treaty in 1979. Egypt was the first Arab nation to make peace with Israel.. In 1982, per the peace treaty, Israel completed its withdrawal from the Sinai Peninsula, and the Sinai once again came under Egyptian control.

 

 

Sources:1. Kohn, George C. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts On File Publications. 1999.

2. Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupey. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present New York, New York: Harper & Row. 1993.

 

Egypt History Timeline

31 Jan

Timeline of Egyptian History at http://historyguy.com/egypt_history_timeline.htm

1970– Nasser dies, and Vice-President Anwar al-Sadat becomes President of Egypt.

1973War with Israel. The Yom Kippur/Ramadan War paves the way for eventual peace negotiations to take place.

1974First Sinai Disengagement Agreement between Egypt an Israel. Israel pulled back from part of the Sinai. This agreement was, in effect, the first land-for-peace agreement between Israel and an Arab neighbor.

1977 (January)–Egyptian ‘Bread Riots’ against economic reforms. Nearly 80 deaths, and 800 wounded.

1977 (July)-Short border war with Libya.

1977 (November)-Sadat goes to Jerusalem and is the first Arab leader to visit Israel. Sadat spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about how to achieve a comprehensive peace between Israel and the Arab nations.

1978-Egypt and Israel sign the Camp David Accords. There were two accords, titled A Framework for Peace in the Middle East and A Framework for the Conclusion of a Peace Treaty between Egypt and Israel. The Accords set the stage for the 1979 peace treaty.

1979-Egypt and Israel sign the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, ending the state of war that had existed since 1948.

1979-Egypt is expelled from the Arab League for making peace with Israel.

1981-Assassination of President Sadat. Vice-President Hosni Mubarak assumes power.

1989-Egypt readmitted to the Arab League.

1991-War with Iraq. Egypt took part in the multi-national coalition that drove Iraqi forces from Kuwait in the Gulf War.

2011Massive unrest takes place throughout Egypt with opposition groups calling for the ouster of President Mubarak.

 

Egypt History Online

29 Jan

New page on Egyptian History, including information on the Political Unrest in Egypt in January of 2011.

Egypt History Portal page is at http://www.historyguy.com/egypt_history.htm

 

Wars of Tunisia

23 Jan

Tunisia is a North African nation whose Arabic-speaking people are largely Muslim. As such, it is considered a part of the Muslim and Arab world. Tunisia came under French rule in the 1880s, and gained independence in 1956.

Tunisia today is a nation struggling with poltical changes, with President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, leaving office amid massive protests over his rule. Ben Ali was only the second President of Tunisia. He was succeeded by Fouad Mebazaa.

Wars and Conflicts of Tunisia from the French Conquest to Today:

French occupation (1881)

Tunis Riots (1938)–At least 118 dead in riots following the arrest of an opposition leader.

World War II in North Africa (1942-1943)

Tunisian War of Independence (1952-1955)

France Tunisia Independence War 1952-1954 –Guerrilla war of independence against the French began in Tunisia, led by Habib Bourguiba.

Habib Bourguiba, Led Tunisia to Independence From France–Obitiuary for Habib Bourguiba, Tunisian revolutionary leader

Franco-Tunisian Border Conflict (1957)

Second Franco-Tunisian War [The Bizerte Incident] (1961)

Bread Riots (1983-1984)–Protests against the government after the price of bread was increased over 100%. The riots and the response from the authorities killed at least 50 demonstrators and bystanders. See also Tunisia: Bourguiba Lets Them Eat Bread–Time Magazine, Jan. 16, 1984)

http://www.historyguy.com/wars_of_tunisia.htm

Israeli air raid against PLO headquarters in Tunis (Oct. 1,1985)-After the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) fled its old headquarters in Beirut, Lebanon due to the Israeli Invasion of Lebanon, the PLO used Tunis as its headquarters. Israel’s “Operation Wooden Leg,” attempted to kill PLO Chairman Yasser Arafat with an air raid on his headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. Arafat survived, though at least 60 members of the PLO died. Israel said this attack was in response to the PLO yacht attack off Larnaca, Cyprus. (See also Israeli-Palestinian Battles)

Anti-Government Riots (January 2011)–Protests against the governement of President Ben Ali led to the President leaving power and fleeing Tunisia. At least 78 deaths were reported in the riots.

See also: http://www.historyguy.com/wars_of_tunisia.htm