Archive for the ‘United States History’ Category

U.S. Government Shutdowns History

08 Apr

Below is a chart showing the last 18 shutdowns of the United States Federal Government since 1976

Year Date Government Shutdown Began Full day(s) of Government Shutdown Date Government Shutdown Ended
    of gaps  
1976 Thursday 09-30-76 10 Monday 10-11-76
1977 Friday 09-30-77 12 Thursday 10-13-17
1977 Monday 10-31-77 8 Wednesday 11-09-77
1977 Wednesday 11-30-77 8 Friday 12-09-77
1978 Saturday 09-30-78 17 Wednesday 10-18-78
1979 Sunday 09-30-79 11 Friday 10-12-79
1981 Friday 11-20-81 2 Monday 11-23-81
1982 Thursday 9-30-82 1 Saturday 10-2-82
1982 Friday 12-17-82 3 Tuesday 12-21-82
1983 Thursday 11-10-83 3 Monday 11-14-83
1984 Sunday 9-30-84 2 Wednesday 10-3-84
1984 Wednesday 10-3-84 1 Friday 10-5-84
1986 Thursday 10-16-86 1 Saturday 10-18-86
1987 Friday 12-18-87 1 Sunday 12-20-87
1990 Friday 10-5-90 3 Tuesday 10-9-90
1995 Monday 11-13-95 5 Sunday 11-19-95
1995-1996 Friday 12-15-95 21 Saturday 1-6-96

As of Friday, April 8, 2011, President Obama and the Republican leadeship in the House of Representatives had failed to reach a budget agreement that would prevent the first Federal Government Shutdown of the 21st Century. Stay tuned for more details.

Source: The Congressional Research Service Report 98-844: Shutdown of the Federal Government:

Causes, Effects, and Process


Second Seminole Indian War

27 Feb

New page on the Second Seminole War is now online.

The Second Seminole War Began: December 23, 1835

TheSecond Seminole War Ended: August 14, 1842

The Second Seminole War Was Fought Between: United States vs. Seminole Indians of Florida

The Second Seminole War Resulted In: Seminole Indians were allowed to remain in South Florida, though some were encouraged to move West. In effect, the Army could not defeat the Seminoles, and they were allowed to remain in place.

Major Battles and Campaigns of the Second Seminole War:

“Dade Massacre” (December 28, 1835)Gaines’ Expedition (1836)

Scott’s Expedition (1836)

Battle of Hatchee-Lustee (1837)

Battle of Lake Okeechobee (December 25, 1837)

Battle of Loxahatchee (January 24, 1838)

“Harney Massacre” (July 23, 1839)

Second Seminole War Casualties:

Seminole Casualties: Unnknown (Seminoles usually carried away their dead and wounded)

U.S. Military Casualties: 1,600 (approximately)  


Sources:1. Kohn, George C. Dictionary of Wars. New York: Facts On File Publications. 1999.

2. Dupuy, R. Ernest and Trevor N. Dupey. The Harper Encyclopedia of Military History: From 3500 B.C. to the Present New York, New York: Harper & Row. 1993

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Dionne’s Editorial on the American Civil War is Correct

27 Dec

A recent editorial by Washington Post columnist E.J. Dionne, Don’t Spin The Civil War, is a fact and data-filled piece that reiterates the need to remember the real reason the United States fought a bloody, and ultimately victorious and righteous Civil War (note that it is rightly called the “Civil War,” not the ” War Between the States.”)  Dionne’s piece backs up the post on this website denouncing the upcoming re-enactment of Jefferson Davis’s oath of office by pro-Southern re-enactors who want to (pardon the pun) white-wash history by spouting the usual blather about the reasons for the Civil War.  Secession and the war were driven by the slavery issue, not states’ rights.  Read Dionne’s piece for some good information on this ongoing problem with the pro-Confederate attempt to revise the history of the American Civil War.


Re-Enactment of Jefferson Davis’ Inauguration Re-Enacts Treason and Evil

22 Dec

Civil re-enactors plan to re-create Jefferson Davis’s Oath of Office on that event’s 150th anniversary.  This is akin to a pack of Neo-Nazis in Germany planning to re-enact the Nuremburg Rallies or a re-enactment of Benedict Arnold’s betrayal of the Patriots in the American Revolution. 

Jefferson Davis led a rebellion against the constitutionally-elected government of the United States.  The moment he took the Confederate oath of office, he marked himself and all of his followers as illegitimate traitors to all that the United States of America stood for then, and stands for today.  Re-enacting significant battles from American history is one thing, but Davis’ swearing in as the Confederate leader is re-enacting a political act; specifically a political act that sought to preserve the “right” of rich white men to own other human beings as property.  Many Confederate apologists argue that the southern secession and the Civil War are about the legitimate political concept of States’ Rights, or the sanctity of property, or a response to the economic inequality between the North and the South. 

The bare truth is that secession and war were about slavery, and that Jefferson Davis’ inauguration as the leader of an attempted country based on the blood and sweat of enslaved man and women was a ceremony as evil and malicious as Hitler’s Nuremburg rallies.  Slavery was the American Holocaust, stretched out over hundreds of years rather than Hitler’s 12 years of tyranny. 

Re-enacting the ultimate act of treason by America’s ultimate traitor is a political act (rightfully protected by the constitution Davis rejected), that will mark the re-enactors as ill-thinking racists who pine for an earlier era when African-Americans were subservient and without rights.  Do you think these re-enactors voted for a black man to occupy the White House?  I kinda doubt it.

Read the article from The Houston Chronicle, Dec. 22, 2010:

Hundreds of Civil War re-enactors will parade up Montgomery’s main street to the state Capitol on Feb. 19 to recreate the swearing-in of Confederate President Jefferson Davis 150 years ago.

African-American leaders might protest nearby with a message that the Confederacy should be remembered with shame for trying to keep blacks enslaved rather than with celebration.

Organizers say they are not trying to create controversy.   Read the rest of the article from The Houston Chronicle,